EQ Institute Home Page
Contents of this page
On the Dimensionality of Emotional Labor: Development and Validation of an Emotional Labor Scale -Celeste M. Brotheridge and Raymond T. Lee
A Conservation of Resources Model of the Dynamics of Emotional Labor - Celeste Brotheridge
Abstracts from a special issue of Human Resource Management Review entitled Emotions in the Workplace: The Neglected Side of Organizational Life.
Selected correspondence related to EI from EMONET- Primarily comments by Reuven Bar-On about the definition of EI and about testing for it Includes a list of references compiled by Bar-On.
EMONET (not specifically EI) - a discussion group primarily for academic research on emotions in organizations
Geneva Emotion Research Group (not specifically EI)
Online copy of Darwin's "The expression of emotion in man and animals"
An interesting article on computers and emotion by a Professor at MIT
http://info.greenwood.com/books/1567203/1567203647.html - a recent book on emotions in the workplace
A 1996 site by a PhD student at Cornell with a good discussion of tests, including definitions of valitidy, reliability etc. http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorial/young/eiweb2.htm
A related site, also from 1996 by the same student with some
emotion related info: http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/gallery/young/emotion.htm
An interesting article on EI and multiculture -- indiana.edu/~div16/MultiCultural.html - link broken as of July 2012
Some research I would like to see
Here are a few research ideas which relate to the concepts I present on these pages. As far as I know, no one has done such things. If you want to do the research, I will weblish it on my site.
I think it would be interesting to study the correlation between some key feelings and maybe academic performance or satisfaction with their school. For example, I would suspect that if students feel cared about, understood, respected by their marks would be higher
Or study such key feelings vs happiness in relationships
Or teen's feelings from their parents vs problems like drugs, smoking
Or it might be interesting to ask 100 teens how much they feel over-controlled by their parents, under-controlled or in control of their own life, something like that. As far as I know, no one asks such direct questions and puts them on a 0-10 scale. I am pretty sure the results would tell us something interesting.
Another idea would be to study television shows and rate them according to some kind of EQ critieia-- maybe how many times emotions are expressed with feeling words vs with actions or with "you message" or labels, such as "this is ridiculous."
Or to study the effect of changing one's self-talk from such you messages and labels to "I feel" feeling words.
Another is to measure the variables I was planning to track in my Montessori school research project, which sadly, never was completed since my ideas were a little too revolutionary for the teachers!
Another: Research the connection between childhood invalidation and later emotional problems (suicide, institutionalization etc.) or the consequences of invalidation in general.
Research the use and consequences of emotional control and manipulation by institutions such as religion. See if there is a correlation between EI or EQ and certain religions.
Abstracts from a special issue of Human Resource Management Review entitled Emotions in the Workplace: The Neglected Side of Organizational Life.
Last year a group of emotions scholars put together a special issue
of Human Resource Management Review entitled Emotions in the Workplace: The
Neglected Side of Organizational Life. This special issue isn't scheduled
to be published until 2002, so we thought the workplace emotions research
community might be interested in a preview.
Therefore, with the permission of the authors of the papers to be
published in the special issue, we are distributing this set of abstracts
and correspondence information to the EMONET community. Please contact the
authors directly if you wish to receive copies of their papers.
Emotions in the Workplace: The Neglected Side of Organizational Life
Institute of Human Resources and Industrial Relations
Loyola University Chicago,
820 N. Michigan Ave. Chicago, IL 60611
Paul E. Spector
Department of Psychology
University of South Florida
Emotions are a daily experience in life, both inside and outside of
work. They are both a response to events and situations we encounter, and a
cause of our responses. Despite their importance, their role has been
de-emphasized in organizational research until the 1990s. Particularly the
more "micro" disciplines (such as industrial-organizational psychology)
within the broader field of organization studies have focused attention much
more on attitudes, behavior, cognition, and personality than on emotions
--yet emotions have an important impact on all of these areas. There is
clearly a need for more research on emotions in the workplace. This special
issue of Human Resources Management Review helps answer this need. It
contains five papers that reflect on and offer theoretical contributions to
recent thinking and research on this topic.
Overview of the Special Issue
The five papers in this special issue tackle several questions in the
forefront of contemporary thinking about the experience, measurement,
control, and consequences of emotions in the workplace. Howard Weiss
challenges not only with the long-standing usage in organizational
psychology of job satisfaction as an affect variable, but also with the more
current tripartite conceptualization of job satisfaction as an attitude with
affective, behavioral and cognitive components. Peter J. Jordan, Neal M.
Ashkanasy, Charmine E. J. Härtel, and Gregory S. Hooper explore the
relationship of emotional intelligence and successful team performance,
based on their development of the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile,
Version 3 (WEIP-3). Blake E. Ashforth and Glen E. Kreiner write about one of
several means by which organizations control the experience and expression
of emotions, whereby potentially unacceptable emotions are "normalized" in
order to preserve the status quo. Dieter Zapf considers the issue of
"emotion work" or "emotional labor", in which employees are required to
express appropriate emotions as a job requirement, and the consequent
effects on employee well-being. Finally, Paul E. Spector and Suzy Fox
propose that emotions play a central role in employee choices to engage in
"voluntary" work behaviors such as counterproductive work behavior (CWB) or
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
Normalizing Emotion in Organizations:
Making the Extraordinary Seem Ordinary
Blake E. Ashforth
Department of Management
College of Business
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-4006
(480) 965-0917 (fax: -8314)
Glen E. Kreiner
University of Cincinnati
Organizations use various means of regulating socially undesirable emotions,
including normalizing. We define normalizing as institutionalized processes
by which extraordinary situations are rendered seemingly ordinary. Four
means of normalizing are discussed: (1) diffusing, where undesired emotions
are dissipated or their impact is reduced, (2) reframing, where emotions or
the situation are recast such that the emotions are forestalled, redefined,
or rendered more acceptable, (3) adaptation, where repeated exposure to a
situation reduces its emotional impact, and (4) ritualism, where the
enactment of standardized procedures provides a sense of control and a
momentum of means, thereby reducing emotions. We conclude that because
normalizing often has a strong "as-if" or pretend quality -- requiring
ongoing and mutual face-work, often supported by symbolic management -- it
is an inherently fragile practice that is easier to sustain in groups than
Workgroup emotional intelligence: Scale development and relationship to team
process effectiveness and goal focus
Peter J. Jordan
Neal M. Ashkanasy
Charmine E. J. Härtel
Gregory S. Hooper
The University of Queensland
Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management
literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and
performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with
high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management.
This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure,
the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3 (WEIP-3), which was
designed specifically to profile the emotional intelligence of individuals
in work teams. We applied the scale in a study of the link between
emotional intelligence and two measures of team performance: team process
effectiveness and team goal focus. The results suggest that the average
level of emotional intelligence of team members, as measured by the WEIP-3,
is reflected in the initial performance of teams. In our study, low
emotional intelligence teams initially performed at a lower level than the
high emotional intelligence teams. Over time, however, teams with low
average emotional intelligence raised their performance to match that of
teams with high emotional intelligence.
Deconstructing Job Satisfaction:
Separating Evaluations, Beliefs and Affective Experiences
Howard M. Weiss
Department of Psychological Sciences
West Lafayette, IN 47907
In this paper I argue that standard treatments of job satisfaction have
inappropriately defined satisfaction as affect and in so doing have obscured
the differences among three separate, if related, constructs. These key
constructs are overall evaluative judgments about jobs, affective
experiences at work and beliefs about jobs. I show that clearly separating
these constructs is consistent with current, basic research and theory on
attitudes as well as with current research and theory on Subjective Well
Being. I also argue that the separation of the constructs can produce better
criterion predictions than job satisfaction has by itself, suggests that new
areas of research that cannot be envisioned when satisfaction and affect are
treated as equivalent constructs, and requires the development of new
Emotion Work and Psychological Well-being.
A Review of the Literature and Some Conceptual Considerations
Department of Psychology
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt
Tel. +49 69 798 22963
FAX +49 69 798 23847
In this article the state of the art of research on emotion work (emotional
labor) is summarized with an emphasis on its effects on well-being. It
starts with a definition of what emotional labor or emotion work is. Aspects
of emotion work such as automatic emotion regulation, surface acting and
deep acting are discussed from an action theory point of view. Empirical
studies so far show that emotion work has both positive and negative effects
on health. Negative effects were found for emotional dissonance. Concepts
related to the frequency of emotion expression and the requirement to be
sensitive to the emotions of others had both positive and negative effects.
Control and social support moderate relations between emotion work variables
and burnout and job satisfaction. Moreover, there is empirical evidence that
the co-occurrence of emotion work and organizational problems leads to high
levels of burnout.
An Emotion-Centered Model of Voluntary Work Behavior: Some Parallels Between
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) and Organizational Citizenship
Paul E. Spector
University of South Florida
1214 Windsor Way
Lutz, FL 33549
Institute of Human Resources and Industrial Relations
Loyola University Chicago
We present a model that integrates findings from several areas to explain in
parallel the voluntary acts of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). CWB is behavior, such as
aggression or sabotage, intended to hurt the organization or its employees.
OCB is prosocial behavior intended to help. A variety of job/organizational
conditions (constraints on performance, job stressors, injustice, or
violation of psychological contract) will elicit emotional reactions.
Negative emotion will tend to increase the likelihood of CWB and positive
emotion will increase the likelihood of OCB. CWB is associated with the
personality characteristics of trait anger and anxiety, locus of control,
and delinquency. OCB is associated with empathy and perceived ability to
help. We discuss how management of emotion-eliciting conditions and events
can help control voluntary behavior in a way that leads to both employee and
(permission to reprint requested)
On the Dimensionality of Emotional Labor: Development and Validation of an Emotional Labor Scale
Celeste M. Brotheridge and Raymond T. Lee
University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
This research was supported by a grant from the Faculty of Management, University of Manitoba. An earlier version of this manuscript was presented at the First Conference on Emotions in Organizational Life, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, August, 1998. Correspondence concerning this manuscript should be addressed to Cleste M. Brotheridge, Faculty of Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 5V4. Electronic mail may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the Emotional Labor Scale (ELS). The factor structure of the ELS was examined in an exploratory factor analysis on data obtained from a sample of working students. Using a second sample, it was then validated through the use of confirmatory factor analysis. This research also examines the hypothesized pattern of relationships among the dimensions of emotional labor as proposed by Morris and Feldman (1996) and as developed in this study. In addition to exploring the nature of the emotional labor construct itself, this research considers how well the different dimensions of emotional labor predict emotional exhaustion. In particular, this research found that: (1) individuals employ deep acting as a means of responding to roles requiring the frequent display of a variety of emotions over an extended period of time; (2) individuals may also employ surface acting as a means of dealing with frequent emotional displays; (3) surface and deep acting are associated with each other; and (4) surface acting alone is predictive of emotional exhaustion. Key words: emotional labor, scale validity, emotional exhaustion
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(permission to reprint requested)
A Conservation of Resources Model of the Dynamics of Emotional Labor
C. Brotheridge - email@example.com
This paper presents a reconceptualization of emotional labor aimed at explaining why performing emotional labor may or may not result in burnout. The proposed model, which is based on the conservation of resources theory, suggests that performing emotional labor may eventually lead role occupants to identify with their roles. Such identification is fostered through: (a) the social norms surrounding the roles themselves; (b) the self-presentation skills of the role occupants; (c) the reciprocity of the social interaction; and (d) the physiological process wherein there is increasing congruence between expressed and felt emotions. As they begin to identify with their roles, role performers move from performing surface acting to deep acting and, eventually, to the expression of genuine emotions. Those employees who make this transition towards the expression of genuine emotions are most likely to experience a sense of authenticity and, hence, a feeling of personal accomplishment. Those who continue to perform surface acting are likely to feel inauthentic and, over time, experience emotional exhaustion and adopt depersonalization as a defensive mechanism.
KEY WORDS: emotions; burnout; conservation of resources theory
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Emonet Digest 403
Thu, 11 May 2000
I am somewhat "stealing" Julie's idea of coming to you for potential resources/advice. Julie, I am looking through my references and will be sure to be in touch if I have anything. I am currently a PhD student and am giving a talk (very soon!) on EI in the workplace and wanted to place EI in a competency framework and critically evaluate it. I want to discuss whether EI is "personality" or something more objective and to discuss the implications of using EI as a selection/training tool. I have had a hard time coming up with resources as well. If anyone has anything or places for me to look, I would greatly appreciate it. At this point, anything on EI and the workplace would be valuable given the paucity of academic research in this area. Thanks, Michelle K.
From Reuven Bar-On:
Hi Michelle/Julie, I think you have asked two very interesting and difficult questions. 1. One question relates to the nature of the concept of 'emotional intelligence' itself. I think you're asking if it is personality, animal, vegetable OR actually intelligence (based on abilities and the potential for some sort of action or behavior). This depends upon which definition of emotional intelligence you are using and HOW the construct was defined. There has been quite a bit of confusion here. The first major source of confusion stems from sloppy thinking on the part of 'theorist' (who quite often turn out to be authors, philosophers, journalists, spiritual/religious leaders and, even, PR professionals - we should actually attempt to receive 'psychological' 'theories' based on empirical research conducted by psychologists who have traditionally been those who study intelligence and human behavior, more than on a combination of media 'buzz words' which even some academics quote from time to time). The sloppiness here stems from calling it 'intelligence' (simply "the ability to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with one's environment" to quote how David Wechsler defined it 1958) AND/OR 'competence', 'competency' or 'competent behavior' (i.e., some sort of observable and/or measurable behavioral outcome/activity/result based, in part, on one's intelligence, cognitive and otherwise). It is, of course, easier to observe, describe and measure the way one has behaved (in the past) rather than one's ability/capacity to behave (in the future) - discriminant validation is easier to demonstrate than predictive validation). If we are perfectly honest with ourselves, tests of personality and cognitive intelligence tests are only measuring the extent to which behavior is competent (based on some standard, which is often determined by person who has developed the test) and not one's actual personality or intelligence; BUT we then try to extrapolate from this and bravely estimate what we think their personality and intelligence is (based on the way they behave/behaved in certain situations that we artificially created for them by the test. In that one's 'intelligence' is a construct which can never be accurately measured, intelligence is estimated by the degree of what WE assess to be competent behave. In an article that appeared in the American Psychologist in October 1997, Robert Sternberg suggested that two words/concepts are a must to call something an "intelligence": 'Abilities' and 'adaptability' (i.e., an ability or set of abilities that determine our potential to adapt to our environment) -- it is quite interesting when you look at his second prerequisite for intelligence: 'Adaptability' (the ability to adapt?). Sternberg argues that these two words/concepts appear in every major definition of intelligence put forth during the past 100 years (BTW, look at the way Binet originally defined intelligence at the end of the 19th century). To confuse you even more, Sternberg (1997) talks about 'thinking styles' which are not abilities but 'preferences' (closely related to personality). To confuse you even more, Wechsler suggested (1958) that intelligence was part of personality and "the whole person" when asked about the difference between the two constructs. It's also interesting to note that the word rarely appears in the literature until about the 1920s (this includes major publications and dictionaries). It is also interesting to note that when you look at the history of emotional and social intelligence from the 1920s until the present, you will see that theorists/researchers BOLDLY define 'intelligence' in the beginning and then retreat back into the safer area of 'competence' (e.g., Thorndike's definition of "social intelligence" in 1920 followed by Doll's description of "social competence" in 1935, Leuner's mention of "emotional intelligence" in 1966 and Saarni's definition of "emotional competence" in 1989 which was originally used by Salovey and Mayer in 1990 who then BOLDLY adopted the earlier term "emotional intelligence", Bar-On's original use of "emotional and social intelligence" which was later been referred to as "emotional and social competence", and BTW Goleman's original title of "Emotional Intelligence" was "Emotional Literacy" and today he is talking more about "emotional competence"!). I think that when you look at the way emotional/social intelligence is being defined/described/measure by most the leading people in this field today, we are really talking more about competence (the degree of competent behavior) than about intelligence, which is probably better; even Mayer's attempt to measure "emotional intelligence" is essentially a rough estimate of the respondent's emotional intelligence based on the respondent's performance on a couple of tasks that he and his colleagues think tap the essence of this construct - if it's true or not and to what extent, only the next decade of research findings will help us decide).
The next source of confusion here is that our theorists/researchers are vague when they describe the nature of the factorial components of their definitions (i.e., Are they actual components of emotional/social intelligence or, more precisely, 'determinates,' 'prerequisites', 'facilitators' and/or simply 'correlates' of the construct?). Based on my model and measure (the EQ-i) of what I call "emotional and social intelligence", I would like to conclude with the way I personally see this. The EQ-i was originally constructed as an experimental instrument designed to examine a concept of emotional and social functioning that I thought eventually lead to psychological well-being (Bar-On, 1985 & 1988). It was reasoned that the results gained from applying such an instrument on diverse population samples in various settings would tell us more about emotionally and socially competent behavior and, eventually, about the underlying construct of emotional and social intelligence. This instrument was eventually published in 1997 (Bar-On, 1997a) and recently reviewed by the Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook in 1999 (in press). Although the EQ-i is the first test of emotional intelligence to be published by a psychological test publisher, it may more accurately be described as a self-report measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior which provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. Moreover, it is important to stress that the EQ-i was developed to measure this particular construct and not personality traits, emotional states nor cognitive capacity as is convincing demonstrated by the following sources: Bar-On (in press); Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook (2000); Dawda & Hart (2000); Derksen, Kramer, & Katzko, (1999); Parker, Taylor, & Bagby, (in press). Take a look at some of the references below:
References compiled by R. Bar-On
Bar-On, R. (1988). The development of a concept of psychological well-being. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rhodes University, South Africa. Bar-On, R. (1996). The era of the EQ: Defining and assessing emotional intelligence. Poster session presented at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada. Bar-On, R. (1997). Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A measure of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Bar-On, R. (1997). Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Bar-On, R. (in press). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). In Reuven Bar-On and James D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bar-On, R. Emotional intelligence and self-actualization. In Joseph Ciarrochi, Joe Forgas, and John D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry. In preparation. Bar-On, R., Brown, J.M., Kirkcaldy, B.D., & Thome, E.P. (2000). Emotional expression and implications for occupational stress: An application of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 1107-1118. Bar-On, R., & Handley, R. (1999). Optimizing people: A practical guide for applying emotional intelligence to improve personal and organizational effectiveness. New Braunfels, TX: Pro-Philes Press (a revised edition to be published by Time Manager International in Denmark). Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook, 14th edition (in press). Ciarrochi. J., Chan, A., & Caputi, P. The measurement of emotional intelligence. In Joseph Ciarrochi, Joe Forgas, and John D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry. In preparation. Dawda, R., & Hart, S.D. (2000). Assessing emotional intelligence: Reliability and validity of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 797-812. Derksen, J., Kramer, I., & Katzko, M. (2000). Does a self-report measure for emotional intelligence assess something different than general intelligence? Submitted for publication. Fund, S. (2000). Examining the contribution of emotional intelligence in occupational performance. Unpublished manuscript. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Gowing, M., & Boyatzis, R. Measurement of individual emotional competence. In Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman (Eds.), Emotional competence in organizations. In preparation. Hedlund, J., & Sternberg, R.J. (in press). Too many intelligences? Integrating social, emotional, and practical Intelligence. In In Reuven Bar-On and James D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Hee-Woo, J. (1998). Emotional intelligence and cognitive ability as predictors of job performance in the banking sector. Unpublished MA dissertation, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (in press). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc. Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (in press). Competing models of emotional intelligence. In Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (2nd ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Parker, J.D.A., Taylor, G.J., & Bagby, R.M. (in press). The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Goldman, S.L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T.P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta Mood Scale. In J. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure & health (pp. 125-154). New York: Bantam Books. Thorndike, E.L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper's Magazine, 140, 227-235. Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445. Wechsler, D. (1943). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 38, 100-104. Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence (4th ed.). Baltimore, MD: The Williams & Wilkins Company.
2. The other question you asked relates to the use of EI as a selection/training tool. This is much easier to reply to: Yes! My measure and model of emotional and social intelligence has been used successfully in recruiting, selecting, hiring, training and promoting employees. I can give you a list of about 30-40 well known organizations (mainly in North America) that use the EQ-i specifically for these purposes; of course, there are now hundreds/thousands of organizations around the world who use EI in selection/training. Two big 'success stories' are American Express and the US Air Force (which lead to a Congressional Report praising the USAF's use of the EQ-i in selection). You might want to read Cary Cherniss' chapter in the book I co-edited (the Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, which will be available in August/September) and/or in a book that he is presently co-editing with Daniel Goleman (. The sources are below: Cherniss, C. Social and emotional competence in the workplace. In Reuven Bar-On and James D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Cherniss, C., & Goleman, D. (Eds.). Emotional competence in organizations. In preparation. You can also see what's been done at EIconsortium (eiconsortium.org), HayGroup (haygroup.com), Linkage (linkageinc.com), EQuniversity (eiuniversity.com), and TMI (www.tmi.com) - I have developed an IBT (internet based training) EI training program for EQuniversity and am presently developing and examining EI training programs for TMI where I'm also developing measures to examine new concepts like "organizational EI" and "organizational intelligence" (what it takes for an organization to be intelligent, effective and productive). The above should give you enough material to work with. Have fun, Reuven Bar-On
One other thing that I forgot to add in my previous note, which may be
helpful to you, is that I have put together 'EQ profiles' for 70
different occupations. This is based on research that I and Gill
Sitarenios (from Multi-Health Systems in Toronto) have conduced with the
EQ-i on a database of approximately 50,000 people in North America since
1996. We have identified in each of the 70 occupational groups the five
key EQ factors (out of the 15 tapped by the EQ-i) that were assessed as
determining high performance. This is presently being prepared for
publication and will, hopefully, be made available by the end of 2000.
This will allow one to quickly locate, for example, the EQ profile for
successful insurance salespeople, firefighters and senior managers. This
type of material will provide valuable information for recruiting and
selecting the right people for the job and then continuing their
in-house training in a more scientific manner than is currently done. If
you and/or other emonents are interested, I will keep you informed as to
where and when this will be published.
From: "Jones, Robert G" <firstname.lastname@example.org
To: "'email@example.com'" firstname.lastname@example.org
Date: May 10, 2000
There is a chapter in the forthcoming emonet conference book that includes Bar-on's measure of EI. Lonna Anderson and I used it as a "personality" predictor of responses to feedback. Frankly, it behaved in the opposite of the way it "should" have, given the definition of the construct. It makes me believe quite strongly that, although EI may be a meaningful construct, it is as yet quite difficult to measure. I don't know about Neal's measure, but the EI is not one I would suggest to a client for training, and more certainly not for selection, until response distortion can be ruled out pretty convincingly. I am currently doing some looking at our ability to spot motive states through emotive responses in others. It seems to me that, short of alexothymia disorder, most of us mammals are capable of understanding and interpreting emotional information at a very basic (limbic/hypothalamic) level. So, individual differences in abilities to interpret this information in ourselves and others are not likely to be higly variable, and may be predicted by certain types of emotionally-related experiences. For example, I hypothesize that people with significant musical training and interests tend to recognize and understand some of the more subtle emotions. But again, the differences are probably not all that great (or, therefore, predictive). Bottom line: awareness of our own emotional states and ability to recognize and interpret them in others are pretty basic skills that we may even be born with. Variability in responses to measures asking about these things relate to 1) our beliefs about our own abilities, not our actual abilities (Remember the restaurant scene in "When Harry Met Sally"?) and 2) whether we think someone else will be reading our responses and what we think they expect from us. So, for these two dimensions of EI, I suspect we're looking at least partly at self efficacy and impression management pressures-- neither of which are stable enough things that we would select for them, and only supervised clinical settings would usually try to alter. As for managing our own and others' emotions, this is probably a skill, though I think my clinical psych colleagues will have something to say about this, too.
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