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Emotional Intelligence and
by Joseph V. Ciarrochi, Joseph P. Forgas, John D. Mayer
I am looking forward to seeing what is inside this book. Because Jack Mayer is one of the editors of it, I expect it will be a good one. The book is being promoted as the "first book to provide a serious, comprehensive review of the field and the ways in which EI is important to everyday life". It will be very interesting to see how the many authors address the exaggerated and unfounded claims made in the 1995 and 1998 books by Goleman. While the topics are similar to those covered by Goleman, I expect this to indeed be a much more serious, scholarly and credible book. My hope is that it will also be one which will serve to offset the many misleading, confusing, and exploitative uses of the term "emotional intelligence," and one which will help keep the field of serious EI research and application alive and well.
December 2001 Update -
The book did not live up to my high expectations. I will write more about this later but for now I will refer you to my editorial which discusses my concerns with the book, among several other concerns, if you are interested.
Full text copy of Introductory Chapter
Table of Contents
Full text copy of Chapter 3
Excerpts from Chatper 6 - Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships.... by Julie Fitness
Note: The book should be available around June/July. Amazon is taking orders for it now. Evidently it wil be released in both hardcover and paperback.
My thanks to the authors for their permission to post this introduction to their upcoming book. I believe they made this available to me before they made it available anywhere else, so for that I am especially appreciative. Since this is a pre-publication draft, this version may contain small errors or may vary slightly from the final, corrected, published version.
and Everyday Life:
John Mayer, Joesph Ciarrochi, Joesph Forgas (1)
Few areas of psychology have
generated so much popular interest as emotional intelligence
(EI). In the last five years, the topic of EI has been a topic of
best-selling books, magazines and newspaper articles. It has also
been the topic of considerable scientific research. Why is there
all this excitement? There are several explanations for the
interest in EI. One explanation is that EI somehow fits the
zeitgeist -- the intellectual spirit -- of the times. A
persistent theme of contemporary life is that we can solve
technical problems far better than human problems. The promise of
EI is that it might help us solve at least one aspect of human
problems, namely, conflict between what one feels and what one
thinks. A second, everyday explanation for the interest in EI is
that the EI concept implies (to some) that people without much
academic ability might still be highly successful in life if they
are high in EI. Another reason for its popularity may be that the
concept provides critics of traditional intelligence tests with
ammunition to attack those tests (after all, one might not need
traditional intelligence to succeed). And finally, journalists
and writers have written lively, popular accounts of EI and its
potential role in everyday life. Such accounts have challenged
the view that human nature involves a continuous conflict between
head and heart. Moreover, they have led people to believe that EI
may make us healthy, rich, successful, loved, and happy. Such
bold and important claims need to be evaluated scientifically.
This is what our book sets out to do.
A Dialogue About Human Nature
Beginning in the 20th century, psychologists began to insert themselves into the debate on human nature. They helped inform political scientists about why people vote in certain ways; informed aeronautical engineers about how to design the cockpit of airplanes, and informed computer scientists on the ways that people think. Most relevant here, they also began to tell psychotherapists and others about how people felt, and what those feelings meant.
Pronouncements about why people do the things they do, and the nature of human nature, long predates psychology, of course. As our species evolved tens of thousands of years ago, homo sapiens must have found themselves increasingly self-aware of a largely mysterious and unpredictable world. This self-awareness prompted them to develop language and culture to communicate information about life and existence. From the earliest times, philosophers, political leaders, and religious prophets have provided greatly-sought (and sometimes, forcibly imposed) directions on how life should be lived. From Ancient Greece, came political philosophy and the invention of democracy. From China, came a code of family life evolved in the form of Confucianism. From the Middle East came monotheism and the commandments of Moses.
The forms of government, the
religions, and the moralities in use today are descendants of
earlier systems of thought. In general, those systems that
survived and flourished, did so in part, because they worked.
Thoughts evolve as well as organisms, and only those systems of
thinking survived that were useful enough to assist with daily
living. When the expertise is completely wrong, it is
de-emphasized and eventually ignored. The conversation between
the experts and audience flourishes when experts are helpful, and
vanishes when they are not. We can see the process today:
Communism's view of humanity as "economic man" was
simply too restrictive, too simplistic to properly channel human
energy. Its followers finally brought about its demise. On a
smaller scale, the members of isolated suicide cults die off
because their own self-destruction makes it finally impossible to
further spread their message. Emotional intelligence has
attracted the attention of the public because it suggests that
emotions convey sensible meaning, which requires understanding.
The Dialogue about Feeling
To add to the larger debates on governance, religion, and morality, experts also developed theories of how people should feel. The ancient Greek Stoics argued that thinking was reliable, but that feelings were too subjective, idiosyncratic, and unreliable to be used in constructive ways by society. Although stoicism failed as a movement, its central tenets influenced the Judaism of the time to a slight degree and, to a greater degree, particularly, the then-emerging tenets of Christianity. The stoic ideas were therefore conveyed through the branches of some religions. Centuries later, the rational, scholarly, and empirical emphasis of the European enlightenment appeared to further discredit emotionality. There were some rebellions against this trend, including the European romantic movement, in which artists, writers, and philosophers argued for the importance of feeling and of following one's heart.
Just a few decades ago, when many
contemporary emotions researchers were coming of age, the
political rebellions of the 1960's also placed a high value on
the emotions. For example, in the United States, then Secretary
of Defense Robert McNamara referred to himself as a "human
computer" who would not let emotion interfere with his
thoughts about the War in Vietnam. In contrast, demonstrators
against the war followed their feelings of sympathy toward
innocent people who were dying, and anger at a government that
was responsible for those deaths, and, perhaps, fear at having to
serve in an unpopular war. They believed that the cold, computer
like arguments of people like Robert MacNamara were being used to
disparage those feelings. Whatever the merits of their argument,
the debate was often characterized as one of reason against
feeling. There was little recognition that thought and feeling
could be integrated.
The Advent of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is the latest development in understanding the relation between reason and emotion. Unlike earlier ideas, its unique contribution is to see thought and emotion as adaptively, intelligently, intertwined. Whereas Blaise Pascal wrote, famously, that "The heart has its reasons of which reason knows not," the concept of emotional intelligence suggests the two may not be so far apart as supposed.
As with past developments in the view of human nature, there is an interplay between the experts in the field, and those who are interested in using the knowledge for more practical purposes. Today, EI two worlds: the world of popular psychology, with its best-selling volumes on co-dependence, personality types, the healing of the soul, and jazzy newspaper science, on the one hand, and the world of careful, painstaking research science, on the other. This intersection creates a rather uneasy tension at times, and often misleading cross-talk.
The scientist says, "Here is what I have been working on recently..."The journalist replies, "This is really important," and then jazzes up the story in a way that seems close to lunacy: "Emotional intelligence is twice as important as IQ!" (This often-made, often-repeated claim cannot be substantiated, as is pointed out in a number of chapters of this volume).
Readers think the idea is important, and follow the journalistic reports closely. Seeing this, the scientist thinks, "people are interested in what I do (even if they don't quite get it). I'll give them more..." and then proceeds to write a carefully analytic piece that might be, however, off the topic, or so advanced as to be unfathomable to non-psychologists (Much of EI writing really isn't about EI, as several authors note in their chapters).
At the same time, this
intersection between the scientific and popular world can lead to
genuine collaboration between the scientist and the public, but
only if the scientist cares enough to write clearly, and if the
interested reader is motivated to think critically.
The Rationale For this Book
In the past few years, people have expressed a strong desire for information about EI, as is shown by the proliferation of popular books, and magazine and newspaper articles. Scientists have also become fascinated by the topic; there has been a marked increase in serious research within the area. We were motivated to develop this edited volume in response to the curiosity about the concept, and the availability of new information about it in the scientific literature.
In this volume, we have invited internationally renowned scientists and scientific practitioners to present their views and scientific findings related to EI. We have asked them to write in an accessible, accurate, and informative fashion, so that people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life can easily understand the book.. We have asked them to keep their footnotes and citations to a minimum (although you will still find the most important references you need to other important works in the area). The result is a collection of essays that are frequently worthwhile and informative, often provocative, and sometimes (we think) wonderful.
The essays address: Why are
experts now saying EI exists? What is the concept, and what does
it mean? What does it say about aspects of our everyday life,
including our health, economic decisions, relationships, and
ability to have a successful career? This book explains what is
known about each of those questions.
People approaching the area of
emotional intelligence do so with different interests, needs, and
agendas. The chapters of this book will no doubt appeal in
different ways to different readers. To spare the reader the
effort of striking out at random, we will introduce briefly the
authors and chapters of this volume. This should help readers
find what is closest to what they are looking for.
Part I: Fundamental Issues
The first part of the book is a general introduction to the field of emotional intelligence and its study. It introduces some of the concepts, measures, and research underlying the general study of EI.
John (Jack) D. Mayer, along with another contributor to this volume, Peter Salovey, have published a number of articles on EI, including what may be the first theoretical integration and measurement instrument in the field, in 1990. Dr. Mayer recounts some of that history in Chapter 1, "A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence." He sorts out some of the interweaving of popular and scientific psychology, to provide a field guide of what's what in defining emotional intelligence, measuring it, and what the significance of the field might ultimately be. If you are new to the area, or unfamiliar with the different meanings of emotional intelligence, or the history of the area, this chapter is a good place to start.
When the first emotional intelligence scales were introduced, Joseph Ciarrochi, Amy Chan, Peter Caputi, and Richard Roberts, were among the first researchers to begin studying the available scales, and to publish articles on what they saw the scales as actually measuring. They served as important critics of the field of emotional intelligence measurement. After all, what good is a scientific concept if it can't be measured? In Chapter 2, "Measuring Emotional Intelligence," they examine a variety of psychological tests that have been developed to measure emotional intelligence, all of which are quite different from one another. Here, they pool their collective knowledge and talents to provide a state-of-the art look at what measures of emotional intelligence tell us today. Their chapter critically evaluates the EI tests and describes the strengths and weaknesses of each.
The field of emotional
intelligence was strongly influenced by several related fields.
One of these was the psychological study of "cognition and
affect," or, how emotions and thoughts interact. Joseph
Forgas has been a central contributor to that field, and his
"Handbook of cognition and emotion," summarized much of
that field. In Chapter 3, "Affective Intelligence: the Role
of Affect in Social Thinking and Behavior," Dr. Forgas
describes processes that contribute to and detract from high EI.
For example, he describes how emotions progress over time and how
we tend to overestimate how long negative emotions last. Drawing
on his knowledge of cognition and affect, he also describes an
important, unexpected finding: the more we try to reason about
something, the more our irrelevant moods will bias our thoughts.
His chapter describes a number of other ways that emotions
influence our thinking and behaviour, and presents a model of
Part II: Applications of Emotional Intelligence Research to Everyday Life
The second part of the book examines how EI applies to clinical psychopathology, to education, to interpersonal relationships, to work, to health and finances, and to psychological well-being.
In clinical psychology and psychiatry, there exist a number of scientific and clinical concepts that are closely related to emotional intelligence. Among the most important of these is the clinical syndrome of Alexithymia. Alexithymia means "without emotion words." ("a": without; "lexi": words; "thymia": emotions). Graeme Taylor is among the leading researchers on that condition which overlaps, in important ways, with lower levels emotional intelligence. In Chapter 4, "Low Emotional Intelligence and Mental Illness," Dr. Taylor provides a comprehensive review of Alexithymia research and shows how it may contribute to the development of problems in interpersonal relationships and in coping with distressing emotions and stressful life events. He also provides evidence for the important link between Alexithymia and psychiatric disorders (e.g., substance abuse and eating disorders).
Reuven Bar-on began his psychological career studying well-being, and the many personality dimensions related to it such as self-regard, reality perception, and stress tolerance. He developed a scale to measure those attributes, the current version of which, the Bar-On Eqi is now a frequently used measure of the Emotional Quotient (EQ). His chapter 5, "Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization", describes his own approach to measuring EI. He then reviews evidence that suggests that EI is essential for realizing one's full potential in life.
All of us enjoy the pleasures and suffer the pains of interpersonal relations. Julie Fitness has devoted her career to studying the role of emotions in long term relationships and marriage. In Chapter 6, "Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships," she discusses ways in which EI may be essential to maintaining a strong, healthy relationship. She also argues, however, that emotional intelligence may not be enough for a happy relationship: such intelligence could be used to manipulate and hurt the partner. Dr. Fitness then discusses the values and beliefs that are necessary in combination with EI to create and maintain happy, long-term relationships.
Interpersonal relations begin with a "getting to know you" period. Judith Flury and William Ickes have been conducting cutting edge research on people's ability to read the thoughts and emotions of others. In Chapter 7, "Emotional Intelligence and Empathy," they discuss the scientific findings relating EI to friendship and dating relationships. They also describe research which suggests that being emotionally intelligent sometimes means deliberately not trying to know how the other person feels. In other words, sometimes delusions may be as necessary to our happiness as realities.
Educators have expressed a tremendous interest in emotional intelligence. Maurice Elias is an eminent scholar in education and a major force in bringing emotional intelligence into educational contexts. [See my critical review of Elias' work-- S.Hein] In Chapter 8, "Emotional Intelligence and Education," he and his colleagues, Lisa Hunter and Jeffrey Kress, discuss the wide range of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs that have been implemented in schools and how some of these programs have brought about a number of positive changes in student's lives (better academics, less aggression and drug usage). Dr. Elias and his colleagues' chapter is essential reading to educators and parents and anyone who is interested in how EI can be taught.
There has been a great deal of popular interest in how emotional intelligence can be applied to the business world. David Caruso is not only a trained intelligence researcher, and co-developer of some central measures of emotional intelligence, but also has served as an executive coach in the business world. He and his business colleague, Mr. Charles Wolfe, describe the ways in which emotional intelligence is essential to success in the work place, making liberal use of examples. In Chapter 8, "Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace," they describe how emotional intelligence is relevant to selecting and developing a career, and how EI can help people deal effectively with co-workers. The chapter further discusses how EI assessment can be integrated with other forms of assessment to provide people with feedback about their strengths and weaknesses. The chapter concludes with a blueprint for an EI training program within the workplace.
Peter Salovey co-developed the theory of emotional intelligence with John D. Mayer in the early 1990's and has continued work in the field since that time. In Chapter 10, "Applied emotional intelligence: regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise?", he examines how EI may contribute both to our health and our wealth. He shows that the inability to manage emotions effectively can lead to health problems such as heart disease. Dr. Salovey also shows how poor management of negative emotions can lead to disastrous financial decisions. His chapter is rich with illustrations of how using better emotional and cognitive strategies may lead us to more fulfilling lives.
Part III: Integration and
Robert J. Sternberg occupies a unique position in intelligence research today, as both insider and as critic. The developer of such concepts as practical intelligence and creative intelligence, he has also served as an outspoken commentator on the field of intelligence, its foibles, and its promise. In the course of doing so, he has edited the most significant volumes in intelligence research, including, perhaps most centrally, the "Handbook of Intelligence." In the commentary chapter, Chapter 11, "Measuring the intelligence of an idea: how intelligent is the idea of emotional intelligence?", Dr. Sternberg surveys the emotional intelligence area and examines its contributions to traditional intelligence research. He evaluates whether the idea of EI is "correct" or is consistent with available evidence, whether EI is novel and appropriate in accomplishing what it is supposed to, and the practical usefulness of EI in understanding important life outcomes. Dr. Sternberg's comments tie together much that is in the book. In addition, the historical and scientific perspective he lends makes his chapter an important contribution in its own right.
Together, these articles represent
a diversity of approaches, disciplinary outlooks, and
perspectives on the concept of EI. The field of EI is still in
its early stages; nonetheless we are confident that each of the
approaches represented in this volume will inform the reader
about what EI is and how it may be important to all aspects of
Table of Contents -
Table of Contents - Short version (From Amazon.com)
Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life: An Introduction.... by J. Mayer, J. Ciarrochi and J. Forgas
II. Fundamental Issues
A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence.... by J. Mayer
Measuring Emotional Intelligence.... by J. Ciarrochi, A. Chan, P. Caputi, and R. Roberts
Affective Intelligence: The Role of Affect in Social Thinking and Behavior.... by J. Forgas
III. Applications of Emotional Intelligence Research to Everyday Life
Low Emotional Intelligence and Mental Illness.... by G. Taylor
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization.... by R. Bar-On
Emotional Intelligence and Intimate Relationships.... by J. Fitness
Emotional Intelligence and Empathy.... by J. Flury and William Ickes
Emotional Intelligence and Education.... by M. Elias, L. Hunter, and J. Kress
Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace.... by D. Caruso and C. Wolfe
Applied Emotional Intelligence: Regulating Emotions to Become Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise.... by P. Salovey
IV. Integration and Conclusions
Measuring the Intelligence of an Idea: How Intelligent is the Idea of Emotional Intelligence.... by R. Sternberg
Table of Contents - Expanded Version (Provided by J. Ciarrochi)
Emotional Intelligence and Everday Life: An introduction
John (Jack) Mayer, Joseph Ciarrochi
A dialogue about human nature The diologue about feelings The advent of emotional intelligence The rationale for this book The book's contents Part 1: Introduction to Emotional intelligence Part 2: Applications of emotional intelligence
II. FUNDEMENTAL ISSUES
"Which emotional intelligence are we talking about?" and related questions
John D. Mayer
Abstract How did the field begin (and how was it popularized)? Which emotional intelligence are we talking about? Definitions Component abilities and skills Big divisions of personality inform what "emotional intelligence" ought to denote Conclusions How is emotional intelligence best measured? Scales sorted by approach to emotional intelligence Is emotional intelligence the most important predictor of success in life? Why is emotional intelligence important?
Measuring Emotional Intelligence
Joseph Ciarrochi, Amy Chan, Peter Caputi, and Richard Roberts
Emotional intelligence: Fact or fiction? Emotional intelligence and everyday life How do we know if we have a good measure of EI? Overview of EI tests Performance measures of emotional intelligence The Multi-Factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Scale, MSCEIT V. 1.1 and V. 2.0 Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) Other performance measures of EI Measuring emotion expression skill Measuring EI in children Self-report tests The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) TheTrait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI) The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) Other self-report measures related to EI Disentangling emotional intelligence from other measures Conclusions
Affective intelligence: Towards understanding the role of affect in social thinking and behaviour
Introduction Emotional thought: sometimes, intelligent, sometimes not? Affect and predicting the future Affect infusion: feeling good, and thinking good Affect infusion into memory and judgments A paradoxical effect: thinking more increases affect infusion? Affect and thinking styles Feeling bad-but thinking carefully? Affect and eyewitness memory Coping with stress and the "neurotic cascade" Affect infusion and behaviour Asking nicely? Affective influences on requesting Affect and persuasion Feeling good and getting your way? Affect infusion into bargaining behaviors Individual differences in affect infusion Towards an integration: the affect infusion model Summary and conclusions
III. APPLICATIONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH TO EVERYDAY LIFE
Low emotional intelligence and mental illness
Overview of the Alexithymia construct Alexithymia as low emotional intelligence Alexithymia and maladaptive coping Alexithymia and psychiatric disorders Substance use disorders Eating disorders Somatorfom Disorders Anxiety and depressive disorders Borderline personality disorders Implications for treatment and prevention
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Actualization
The historical roots of emotional intelligence and self-actualization Emotional intelligence Self Actualization Definitions of emotional intelligence and self-actualization Emotional intelligence Self-actualization The method used to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and self- actualization Findings The degree of correlation between emotional intelligence and self-actualization The ability to distinguish between individuals with higher and lower levels self- actualization based on their emotional intelligence The ability of emotional intelligegence to predict self actualization Findings from additional sources indicating that self-actualization is related to occupational performance The connection between self-actualization, wellbeing, and health. Conclusions
Emotional intelligence and intimate relationships: marital happiness and stability
Introduction What is emotional intelligence? Emotion perception and communication in marriage Understanding and reasoning about emotions in marriage Managing and regulating emotions in marriage Is emotional intelligence the key to a successful marriage? Conclusions
Emotional intelligence and empathic accuracy in friendships and dating relationships
Judith Flury and William Ickes
The ability to infer other people's thoughts and feelings Empathic accuracy in friendships and dating relationships Knowing each other "From the Inside" Characteristics of the perceiver Empathic ability Attentiveness Motivation Attachment orientations Communal orientation Characteristics of the target Self-directedness Consistency and coherence Characteristics of the perceiver-target relationship Acquaitanceship and intimacy Relationship discord Relationship vulnerability How can empathic accuracy be improved in casual and close relationships? Improving the empathic accuracy of strangers The effect of exposure and acquaintanceship Limitations of the acquaintanceship effect Obtaining feedback about the target's thoughts and feelings Summary Improving he empathic accuracy of intimates What factors can impair empathic accuracy in close realtionships? Empathic accuracy: is it good or bad for relationships? The rule: empathic accuracy is good for relationships The exceptions: when empathic accuracy is bad for relationships A theoretical model of how empathic accuracy is "managed" in close relationships Empathic accuracy in nonthreatening contexts Empathic accuracy in relationship-threatening contexts Conclusions
Emotional intelligence and education
Maurice J. Elias, Lisa Hunter, and Jeffrey S. Kress.
How does emotional intelligence fit into education? The state of mental health/prevention in schools School-level organizational strategies Targeted prevention programs Comprehensive health-education programs Multi-component prevention strategies EI makes a difference in education: four examplary programs EI and Academics EI and academic "standards" Guidines for implementing emotional intelligence/SEL in schools School-based applications of SEL: emotional intelligence across domains Domain #1: Primary prevention via curriculum-based programs Domain #2: Problem behavior prevention: Violence Domain #3: Programs for transitions and social support: divorce Domain #4: Positive, contributory service Schools as learning communities Parents must be brought along Conclusion
Emotional intelligence in the workplace
David Caruso and Charles Wolfe
Emotional intelligence and career development What do we know about emotional intelligence and careers? How to use emotional intelligence in career development and selection Emotional intelligence and training Emotional intelligence and management development Emotional intelligence coaching The right way to do emotional intelligence coaching Get their attention Determine required competencies Emotional intelligence assessment Set objectives Coaching sessions Follow-up What do we know about emotional intelligence and team leadership? Conclusions How emotional intelligence may be used at work Developing emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence has a job to do
Applied emotional intelligence: regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy, and wise
The salubrious consequences of emotional regulation Emotional expression and health outcomes Emotional suppression and health outcomes Confiding: Might this be the answer? Learning to regulate our emotions for better health Summing up The emotionally intelligent investor: avoiding the pathologies of loss aversion Prospect theory Refusing to sell at a loss Risk-taking when confronted by losses The endowment effect: if it's mine it's worth more Summing up Conclusion
IV. INTEGRATION AND CONCLUSIONS
Measuring the intelligence of an idea: How intelligent is the idea of emotional intelligence?
The analytical value of emotional intelligence The creative intellectual value of emotional intelligence The practical intellectual value of emotional intelligence
citation is: Mayer, J. D., Ciarrochi, J., & Forgas, J.
P. (2001). Emotional intelligence and everyday life: An
introduction. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D.
Mayer (Eds.) Emotional Intelligence and Everyday Life
(pp.xi-xviii). New York: Psychology Press.